children continue to grow and to change in amazing ways as they move from toddlerhood to school-age. During the Preoperational stage, between ages 2 to 7 years, young children continue to grow taller as their bodies take on more adult proportions. They gain the ability to run and to climb stairs independently, as well as to cut with scissors and to grip a writing tool. Cognitively, young children learn how to think symbolically, which leads to make-believe play, and their language explodes and matures. Emotionally, children learn how to express their own feelings and to feel reflective empathy.
Socially, they begin to cultivate relationships with peers as well as deepen family relationships. Morally, they begin to understand “right” versus “wrong,” and to understand they have the choice about which way to go. Sexually, young children continue to form their gender identity and begin to understand what it means to be male or female.
Maria Montessori believed that every human being went through a quantum leap in learning during the preschool years .She felt this was especially true from birth to the first years of life.The years when a child learns language is surely a profound and mysterious process of learning.Screen time is not recommended for 1 year olds and should be limited to an hour a day for 2 year olds. 3-4 years of age: Preschool children should also spend at least 180 a day engaged in physical activity, 60 minutes of which should be moderate to vigorous, and they should get 10-13 hours of quality sleep
At its most basic level, early childhood education (ECE) encompasses all forms of education, both formal and informal, provided to young children up to approximately 8 years of age. This education is fundamental to the development of a child and can significantly shape the later years of an individual’s life.The assessment of student achievement, or understanding what students know and can do, is fundamental to effective teaching and to students’ learning. Unless teachers know students well and are knowledgeable about their achievements, they cannot be confident that they are meeting the learning needs of their students.